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|Title:||When do diagrams enhance learning? A framework for designing relevant representations|
|Publisher:||International Society of the Learning Sciences, Inc.|
|Citation:||Davenport, J., Yaron, D., Klahr, D., & Koedinger, K. (2008). When do diagrams enhance learning? A framework for designing relevant representations. In Kanselaar, G., Jonker, V., Kirschner, P. A., & Prins, F. J. (Eds.), International Perspectives in the Learning Sciences: Cre8ing a learning world. Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference for the Learning Sciences – ICLS 2008, Volume 1 (pp. 191-198). Utrecht, The Netherlands: International Society of the Learning Sciences.|
|Abstract:||Although many studies demonstrate large learning gains when instruction includes diagrams, diagrams do not always lead to improved outcomes. How can instructional designers know whether a given diagram will enhance learning? We have developed a framework of three factors that influence the effectiveness of a diagram in a particular learning situation: the learning objective, the design of the visual representation and the cognitive processing of the learner. In a randomized-design study conducted in a college chemistry class, we found that instruction that included diagrams created with this framework led to enhanced performance on open-ended transfer items compared to traditional instruction, particularly for low-performing students. We propose that a concept-based cognitive theory of multimedia learning that includes a conceptual working memory component may explain why the efficacy of diagrams depends heavily on the prior knowledge of the learner as well as the conceptual information available in the representation.|
|Appears in Collections:||ICLS 2008|
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